Saturday, April 30, 2011

Freaking Fracking Fluid

Hydraulic fracturing, also referred to as fracking, uses a specially blended liquid which is pumped into  the well under extreme pressure.  The pressure causes cracks (faults) in the underground rock formation. These cracks in the rock then allow oil and natural gas to flow, increasing resource production.

In theory, the hydraulic pressure will bring oil and gas to the surface.  However, in reality, it may also produce tainted ground water, polluted streams and people who are dying from disease from exposure to the chemicals in the fracking fluid.

Oil and gas companies blatantly disregard requirements that other industries have to follow. In addition to being exempt from the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act, the Cheney loophole, they do not have to identify the chemicals they use in their operations, citing the rule for proprietary intellectual property. The industry claims its chemical cocktails must be kept confidential because they are trade secrets. Fortunately, Pennsylvania does not recognize this claim.

From the information given to Pennsylvania, a list of the chemicals in fracking fluid that are known to produce ten or more health problems was compiled. Below is a table giving the name of the chemical and how many health effects are related to that chemical.


As you can see, none of these chemicals should be in the ground, groundwater, aquifer, pastureland, spring, river or lake. To use these chemicals close to drinking water supplies is criminal. If you saw the movie Gasland, then you know what is happening to drinking water from coast to coast. If you have not seen Gasland, I have a short post and movie trailer in this post: Gasland : Water, Air and Ground Pollution.

A national database for the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas exploration was opened for use on Monday, April 11. The database, located at http://fracfocus.org/, is a place for companies to voluntarily list the contents of the fluid used in hydraulic fracturing.

The site is a cooperative effort by the Ground Water Protection Council and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission and is partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The chemicals listed below are listed in the database.

Chemical Name | CAS | Chemical | Purpose | Product Function

Hydrochloric Acid | 007647-01-0 | Helps dissolve minerals and initiate cracks in the rock | Acid


Glutaraldehyde | 000111-30-8 | Eliminates bacteria in water that produces corrosive by-products | Biocide


Quaternary Ammonium Chloride |  012125-02-9 | Eliminates bacteria in  water that produces corrosive by-products | Biocide


Quaternary Ammonium Chloride | 061789-71-1 | Eliminates bacteria in water that produces corrosive by-products | Biocide 


Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl-Phosphonium Sulfate | 055566-30-8 |  Eliminates bacteria in water that produces corrosive by-products | Biocide


Ammonium Persulfate | 007727-54-0 | Allows a delayed break down of the gel | Breaker


Sodium Chloride | 007647-14-5 | Product Stabilizer | Breaker


Magnesium Peroxide | 014452-57-4 | Allows a delayed break down the gel | Breaker


Magnesium Oxide | 001309-48-4 |Allows a delayed break down the gel | Breaker


Calcium Chloride | 010043-52-4 | Product Stabilizer | Breaker


Choline Chloride | 000067-48-1 | Prevents clays from swelling or shifting | Clay Stabilizer


Tetramethyl ammonium chloride | 000075-57-0 | Prevents clays from swelling or shifting | Clay Stabilizer


Sodium Chloride | 007647-14-5 | Prevents clays from swelling or shifting | Clay Stabilizer


Isopropanol | 000067-63-0 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Corrosion Inhibitor


Methanol | 000067-56-1 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Corrosion Inhibitor


Formic Acid | 000064-18-6 | Prevents corrosion of pipe | Corrosion Inhibitor


Acetaldehyde | 000075-07-0 | Prevents corrosion of pipe | Corrosion Inhibitor


Petroleum Distillate | 064741-85-1| Carrier fluid for borate or zirconate cross linker | Crosslinker


Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate | 064742-47-8 | Carrier fluid for borate or zirconate crosslinker | Crosslinker


Potassium Metaborate | 013709-94-9 | Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases | Crosslinker


Triethanolamine Zirconate | 101033-44-7 | Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases  | Crosslinker


Sodium Tetraborate | 001303-96-4 | Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases | Crosslinker


Boric Acid | 001333-73-9 | Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases | Crosslinker


Zirconium Complex | 113184-20-6 | Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases | Crosslinker


Borate Salts | N/A | Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases | Crosslinker


Ethylene Glycol | 000107-21-1 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Crosslinker


Methanol | 000067-56-1 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Crosslinker


Polyacrylamide | 009003-05-8 | “Slicks” water to minimize friction | Friction Reducer 


Petroleum Distillate | 064741-85-1 | Carrier fluid for polyacrylamide friction reducer | Friction Reducer


Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate | 064742-47-8 | Carrier fluid for polyacrylamide friction reducer | Friction Reducer


Methanol | 000067-56-1 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Friction Reducer


Ethylene Glycol | 000107-21-1 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Friction Reducer


Guar Gum | 009000-30-0 | Thickens water in order to suspend sand | Gelling Agent


Petroleum Distillate | 064741-85-1 | Carrier fluid for guar gum in liquid gels | Gelling Agent


Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate | 064742-47-8 | Carrier fluid for guar gum in liquid gels | Gelling Agent


Methanol | 000067-56-1 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Gelling Agent


Polysaccharide Blend | 068130-15-4 | Thickens water in order to suspend sand | Gelling Agent


Ethylene Glycol | 000107-21-1 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Gelling Agent


Citric Acid | 000077-92-9 | Prevents precipitation of metal oxides | Iron Control


Acetic Acid | 000064-19-7 | Prevents precipitation of metal oxides | Iron Control


Thioglycolic Acid | 000068-11-1 | Prevents precipitation of metal oxides | Iron Control


Sodium Erythorbate | 006381-77-7 | Prevents precipitation of metal oxides | Iron Control


Lauryl Sulfate | 000151-21-3 | Used to prevent formation of emulsions in fracture fluid | Non-Emulsifier


Isopropanol | 000067-63-0 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Non-Emulsifier


Ethylene Glycol 000107-21-1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Non-Emulsifier


Sodium Hydroxide | 001310-73-2 | Adjusts pH of fluid to maintains effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers | pH Adjusting Agent


Potassium Hydroxide 001310-58-3 | Adjusts pH of fluid to maintains effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers | pH Adjusting Agent


Acetic Acid | 000064-19-7 | Adjusts pH of fluid to maintains effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers | pH Adjusting Agent


Sodium Carbonate | 000497-19-8 | Adjusts pH of fluid to maintains effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers | pH Adjusting Agent


Potassium Carbonate | 000584-08-7 | Adjusts pH of fluid to maintains effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers | pH Adjusting Agent


Copolymer of Acrylamide and Sodium Acrylate | 025987-30-8 | Prevents scale deposits in  pipe | Scale Inhibitor


Sodium Polycarboxylate  | N/A | Prevents scale deposits in pipe | Scale Inhibitor


Phosphonic Acid Salt | N/A | Prevents scale deposits in pipe | Scale Inhibitor


Lauryl Sulfate | 000151-21-3 | Used to increase viscosity of  fracture | Surfactant


Ethanol | 000064-17-5 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Surfactant


Naphthalene | 000091-20-3 | Carrier fluid for active surfactant ingredients | Surfactant


Methanol | 000067-56-1 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Surfactant


Isopropyl Alcohol | 000067-63-0 | Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent | Surfactant


2-Butoxyethanol | 000111-76-2 | Product stabilizer | Surfactant

Sources: www.riverreporter.com/issues/08-12-04/news-fracking.html
http://fracfocus.org/chemical-use/what-chemicals-are-used

1 comment:

April said...

What can we do? They are just disregarding the nature laws since they will not make money for themselves if they do.

"April" for comment perdre des hanches rapidement 

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